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Figure 1. Electronic energy levels of the sample and AFM tip for three cases: (a) tip and sample are separated by distance d with no electrical contact, (b) tip and sample are in

Figure 1. A schematic representation of (a-b) vertical and (c-d) lateral PFM. The AFM laser shows vertical deflections which correspond with (a) downward or (b) upward out-of-plane electrical polarization. In lateral PFM, the

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